Tuesday, March 29, 2005

Space-time, Perception of Time

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
Space-time curvature is effected when a body moves, or a force acts upon it and in turn the structure of space-time affects the way that bodies move and forces act. Because of the interrelationship of all events, space and time not only affect but are also effected by everything that happens within the universe.

The concept of "imaginary" time has also been introduced as a necessary function in an attempt to unify gravity with quantum mechanics. It is indistinguishable from directions in space and there is no significant difference between the forward and backward directions of imaginary time. This differs from the concept of "real" time, which always moves forward toward the future. The second law of thermodynamics requires forward movement only, leading to the concept of "arrow of time".

There are actually at least three arrows of time that compel its forward motion. In addition to the thermodynamic arrow, which is based upon a state of continued heat entropy with a propensity for increasing disorder, there is the psychological arrow, which is based upon our ability to remember past events but not the future, and the cosmological arrow which forces time forward because the universe is in a state of expansion not contraction.

Inside an isolated system the perception of time can also vary within anyone individual. A person who has been administered a mind altering drug may experience time at a different rate than during an ordinary consciousness state. It very much is a mental construct requiring a state of awareness. This would indicate the conscious perception of time can be very much different than the actual constant progression of time as it relates to purely physical events. There are two types of time which flow in a forward direction. Physical or proper time is involved in all physical event processes as relates to all matter-energy transactions and is what the physicist works with. Subjective time requires the presence of consciousness and can be perceived very much differently than actual physical time depending upon the consciousness state.

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Tuesday, March 22, 2005

There is No Absolute Standard of Time

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
According to the special theory of relativity, there can be no absolute standard of time. All time measurements are made relative to the state of the motion of the observer. This is different from predictions based upon the general theory of relativity. The latter allows for many, if not an infinite number of possible absolute time choices.

It has also been suggested that the need for a beginning of time originating with breaking of symmetry from a singularity can be avoided. The universe could have an infinite past if there are fundamental measures of things happening in the universe that slow down the farther one travels back into the past. If this was true then time could also be viewed as accelerating forward relatively speaking rather than remaining constant. The effect would be the same. Someone inside the frame of reference (universe) would see time as a constant without accelerated change. However an observer outside the universe looking in would see a continual slowing of time the farther back into the past one looked probably following an exponential curve. To anyone inside the universe time would appear constant.

If on the other hand the farthest out receding galaxies, which seemingly are moving away from us at a faster rate, would have a slowing of time relative to that which we currently would measure from our own system. We could see the time changes in the other galaxy, however someone inside the distant galaxy would not perceive a change.

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Saturday, March 19, 2005

Time and the Big Bang

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
Time is one of the six properties of the basic fabric of the universe. For time to exist requires the presence of consciousness or awareness. Without consciousness this dimension of physical reality would be reduced to a measure of distance or the measure of any change of a system. Time began with the big bang and has moved forward continuously ever since and will continue to do so hereafter. Time for us could theoretically end if our universe is closed which would someday result in a big crunch with the universe collapsing back upon itself.

Time prior to relativity theory was regarded as absolute however it is now known that this is incorrect. Time appears constant and unchanging within any isolated frame of reference system but is relative and could be measured differently by an observer outside this isolated frame of reference system looking inward. It has now been well documented that even though an individual within an isolated system moving forward at a very rapid velocity will not detect any time difference, an outside observer looking inward will detect a slowing of time that becomes quite dramatic as the speed of light is approached. General relativity also predicts that time will run slower in a gravitational field.

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Tuesday, March 15, 2005

Basic Properties of the Universe

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
Space as it exists in our universe began as a near infinitely small volume as relates to its eventual ultimate size which will not be achieved for at least billions of years into the future. It is one of six identified properties of a universal basic substance. The consistency of space has been and will continue to change from moment to moment. The space of the early universe was very much different in its consistency than what we observe today. The basic ingredients were the same but the way in which they manifested themselves would have been considerably different because of their relatively higher concentrations per unit volume. The physics that describes our current universe would probably apply to the past or future universe as it continuously evolves but it can't be certain that the numerical values of the universal mathematical constants would necessarily remain unchanged.

One interesting prediction that this theory would suggest, as space continues to expand, is that the rate of the aging process will gradually slow which would also apply to the rate that entropy occurs within any system. Space as we are coming to understand is a very dynamic and interesting property of the universal basic fabric and at the most elementary level is continuous and undivided from matter-energy and intelligence-consciousness.

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Wednesday, February 23, 2005

The Composition of Space Within our Universe

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
The composition of space within our own universe or any other, changes over time. It goes through an evolutionary process allowed for by the expansion of space resulting in the continuously decreasing energy density. As the latter occurs this results in decreasing chaos and increasing order. There will be a continuation of the creation of higher order systems over time as space continues to expand.

Intelligence-consciousness is also a previously unrecognized property of space and is present in varying concentrations throughout all of the universe. In some regions it is densely concentrated and in others is quite rarified. Our own earth would appear to be a focus in space that has a heavy concentration of intelligence-consciousness. There is currently less known about its distribution throughout space than matter-energy. This will remain a challenge to science for an extended period of time. Those scientists who have the belief that virtually all that there is to know about our reality has already been defined in physical terms delude themselves.

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Monday, February 21, 2005

Matter-Energy-Intelligence-Consciousness-Space-Time

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
It again should be emphasized that there is one basic fabric that makes up the universe, which is continuous and manifests the seemingly separate properties of matter-energy-intelligence-consciousness-space-time.

Depending upon which interrelated properties of the basic fabric that one attempts to define the distinctions are only arbitrary and illusionary. We see matter as separate from energy and space as well as from intelligence-consciousness because our measuring devices are designed that way. We have an analog universe that we have artificially attempted to divide into discrete packets for observation and analysis. Since the universe is one complete total undivided entity all attempts to quantize it will only allow for approximations. Quantum field theory has achieved a predictable accuracy for atomic events to better than eleven significant figures. General relativity has a tested accuracy, which is even better. It has been proven to be correct to one part in 1014. Other mathematical formulations in the future may achieve an accuracy that is even greater than this, however they will still remain only approximations. Infinitely accurate physical descriptions of the universe will always remain impossible. One would also reach this conclusion based upon the science of chaos. This also leads to the prediction made by this theory that no two points in space can be exactly alike. No two points in space have the same future or the same past. The difference between two very similar points may not be measurable because they are so nearly identical but it is still the conclusion that there are no two points in space, no matter how small the volume being examined, that are exactly alike. Any point in space is also in a state of continual flux where its properties are undergoing change from one moment to the next.

There likely is an infinite space, which stretches well beyond the limits of the space associated with our own universe. Its properties may be different in some ways. There may be multiple universes which surround our own in various stages of contraction and expansion. If so it would seem probable that they would share a common physics.

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Friday, February 18, 2005

Vacuum of Space, Big Bang, Spontaneous Formation of Particles

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
There is no such thing as a pure vacuum in space. Even the most tiny volume of space imaginable contains at least a thin continuous film of energy although in near vacuum situations it will be extremely rarified. The same concept also applies to intelligence-consciousness, which occupies all of space although in some locations may be extremely rarified. This is the leftover effect from the big bang when at the very beginning there was one basic substance and one unified force that has evolved into our current universe which is still comprised of one basic fabric manifested as matter-energy-intelligence-consciousness in space-time with several specified forces.

Matter (atomic particles) is stabilized foci of energy, which is concentrated into very small volumes of space but without form. Atomic particles such as electrons can spontaneously form within space and then dissolve back into space being annihilated by anti electrons (positrons). Protons are extraordinarily stable but would have formed in much the same way as electrons. Energy is not separate from space which means matter isn't either, as atomic particles can precipitate out of space much like a cloud can spontaneously form out of pure blue sky. Once formed it may last billions of years like a proton or disappear within microseconds like a muon. The water vapor within the atmosphere concentrates together to form a cloud and then dissipates back into the atmosphere. The cloud like the electron has no form or defined boundary. The electron like the cloud has no outer shell. It is continuous with space and is indivisible from space.

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Thursday, February 17, 2005

Particle mass - energy, Creation of particles, Interacting particles

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
A particle's mass is usually given as its energy equivalent. An electron volt is a unit of energy yet it is used to express the mass of a particle. To create an electron from energy requires .51 million electron volts. When pair production occurs with the creation of both an electron and a positron then two times .51 mev or 1.02 mev is required. Any particle has both a rest mass which is the equivalent of its energy of "being" and an energy of , "motion" (kinetic) energy. The sum of these two energies is the equivalent of the particle's total mass.

Whenever a single particle spontaneously disintegrates it always decays into lighter particles. The difference between the mass of the original particles and the total mass of the new particles is converted into kinetic energy of the new particles that carry it away. If colliding particles such as two protons interact to form new particles, which have a combined mass greater than the original, then kinetic energy of the projectile proton was absorbed into the creation of the particles. It is absolutely essential that the total combined mass and energy, which involves interacting particles that mutate from one kind to another, remain identically the same following the event. The new particles will each have a different mass and energy than the original ones but the combined mass and energy will be the same. Focal concentrations of energy create the illusion of solid subatomic particles "mass". Mass is energy.

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Friday, February 11, 2005

Energy Packets, or Quanta

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
When the appropriate amount of energy is available then particles can form from the energy. One good example is what is referred to as pair production. Energy within a field is transmuted into an electron and positron. The positron usually is quickly annihilated when it collides with another electron and the newly created matter is transformed back into energy.

Photons, which are both wave-like and particle-like objects, carry energy, the level of which is directly related to their frequency. They comprise the electromagnetic spectrum and can exist as radio waves, infrared waves, light waves, ultraviolet waves, X rays and gamma rays. All of the above travel at the speed of light. Their energy levels are
relatively low in the radio wave part of the spectrum and continuously increase up to the gamma ray region. Each photon carries a discrete amount of energy in specific quantities referred to as quanta.

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Thursday, February 10, 2005

Energy - Energy - Energy

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
Energy represents the capacity for doing work but also is much more since in essence it comprises all of our material existence. The atoms and molecules, which collectively are the building blocks for all seemingly solid objects that we observe throughout the universe, in reality, are made up of this non-solid substance. The atomic and subatomic particles are actually intensely concentrated foci of energy in a quantum field. Particles appear to exist where quantum fields interact. A field is spread out over a much larger area than a particle and completely fills a given space. When two fields interact they do so instantaneously. Wherever these local interactions occur, particles are perceived to be present. The continuous creation and annihilation of subatomic particles is the result of the continual interaction of different fields resulting in focal concentrations of intense energy at points in space. All particles can be transmuted into other particles. The faster the so-called particle moves, the higher its energy level. When a particle is viewed as a wave then its frequency is directly related to its energy level. The higher the frequency, the greater the energy level. The wavelength is inversely proportional to its energy level. The shorter the wavelength the greater the energy.

Energy is defined as the capacity for doing work. It can take a great variety of forms including energy of heat, energy of motion, gravitational energy, chemical energy, electrical energy, etc. Electrical and chemical energy can be transformed into heat energy and used to perform work. The law of conservation of mass-energy indicates that whenever energy is transformed from one kind to another there is never any energy loss. The same concept applies when matter is converted into energy or vice versa. This law says that the total amount of mass-energy within the universe has been and will always be the same. Energy can be converted into mass and mass converted into energy but the total amount of mass-energy does not change.

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Wednesday, February 09, 2005

Gravitons, Photons, Gluons, Quarks, Spin, Messenger Particles

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
Gravitons are postulated messenger particles somewhat analogous to photons. Whenever two particles exert a gravitational influence upon each other, gravitons are exchanged between them. Both gravitons and photons travel exclusively at the speed of light however there the resemblance ends. Photons carry only one unit of spin while gravitons carry two. The spin determines the direction of the force. With gravitons the direction of force is always attraction whereas photons can mediate either an attraction or a repulsion force.

Gluons are messenger particles analogous to photons that also have zero charge and zero mass and are responsible for "gluing" quarks together within the nucleus of an atom as they commute between them.

Messenger particles, which are responsible for the weak force, are different from any of the other messenger particles that result in all the other known forces. They are Wand Z particles both of which have some mass 85 and 95 respectively. The W messenger particle is also different from all of the others in that it can have either a positive or negative charge of 1. All other messenger particles which communicate a force have 0 charge.

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Saturday, February 05, 2005

Hadrons, Quarks, Antiquarks, Mesons, Leptons, Neutrinos, Muons, Tauons, Photons, Electrons, and Protons

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
There are literally hundreds of hadrons which have been identified. The most common types are protons and neutrons however many others exist as composites of smaller objects. Not only do they couple to the strong force as indicated above but also to the weak force and gravity. All hadrons are comprised of more fundamental smaller particles called quarks or antiquarks. It requires three quarks of various types to make a proton or neutron. Other particle types that are heavier than electrons but lighter than protons are called mesons of which there are many. They are made of quark-antiquark pairs and have a very short life expectancy (half-life).

Leptons are elementary point-like objects which only couple to the weak force and seem to be oblivious to both the strong force and gravity. The electron is the best-known lepton and has an electric charge of -1. The neutrino is also a lepton but carries no charge. Since neutrinos have no charge and don't couple to either the strong force or gravity they pass right through matter easily being almost completely oblivious to its presence. Neutrinos are by far the most common particle in the universe outnumbering electrons and protons by a thousand million to one. The universe is actually a sea of neutrinos punctuated rarely by atoms of any kind.

There are other types of leptons including the muon and tauon. The muon is responsible for much of the background cosmic radiation. It is larger than an electron yet has the same charge and spin. It has a very short half-life decaying into an electron and two neutrinos in about two-millionths of a second. The tauon has a mass 3500 times greater than an electron. It has a negative charge and behaves much like an electron or muon.

Photons are particle and wavelike entities that travel only at the speed of light making up the electromagnetic spectrum and depending upon their energy level can appear as light waves, gamma or x-rays, ultraviolet or infrared light or radio waves. They are regarded as "real" when observed in this manner or "virtual" when they act as messenger photons between interacting particles such as electrons whenever an energy exchange is taking place.

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Tuesday, February 01, 2005

Matter and Energy

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
There is now a rather large variety of subatomic particles which have been experimentally verified. They differ from each other in certain ways best defined by their mass, charge, spin and energy equivalence. They collectively constitute the matter- energy spectrum. These subatomic particles were initially believed to represent the smallest solid objects in existence. They are now known to not be solid but rather highly concentrated foci of intense energy, which in some cases are stable, and in others are not stable. Superstring theory would suggest that the basic atomic particles are actually one-dimensional strings. This will be discussed later.



Every particle has a mass, which is roughly the same as weight, however mass is dependant upon both its energy and velocity. For instance an object becomes heavier when it is in rapid motion relative to when it is at rest. Mass has an energy equivalent as defined by Einstein's "E=mc2". This indicates that a particle can be totally converted into energy and gives the exact amount of energy expected when this occurs.



Some but not all particles have an electric charge and are always in fixed multiples of a fundamental unit usually either a positive or negative one. Protons and positrons both have a unit charge of + 1 even though the proton is two thousand times more massive than the positron. An electron has a charge of -1 and the same mass as a positron.



Particles also act as if they have a designated spin that comes in different multiple units. They have been divided into two distinct classes of bosons or fermions depending upon their spin. Those with a spin 0, 1 or 2 are called bosons and those with half-integral spin of 1/2 or 3/2 are called fermions.



Particles are also grouped into one of two categories depending upon which force they couple to. Particles that couple to the strong force are called hadrons and those that couple to the weak force are called leptons.




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Saturday, January 29, 2005

Superforce, Big Bang, and Consciousness/Intelligence

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Daily Exerpt from "Integrated Theory of Intelligence"
A single superforce was present at the moment of creation as another property of the uniform, homogeneous, undifferentiated basic substance which differentiated into the four physical forces which we currently recognize.



At the moment of creation, intelligence-consciousness was totally unified with matter-energy without differentiation but with the potential to be divided up and fractionated into many forms, only a few of which we are currently aware. Our current paradigm would lead most to conclude that intelligence-consciousness is limited to humans or perhaps other human-like creatures on other planets in other galaxies. The theory being presented would allow for a great many other material and non-material forms that possess intelligence-consciousness, including systems that are both living and non-living. Intelligence-consciousness permeated the early universe and would have taken on any form that currently existed at any time throughout the evolutionary process. This is how intelligence-consciousness was able to influence this process resulting in a highly organized universe balanced between order and chaos. It began in a state of maximum chaos and minimal order and has evolved to greater and greater levels of order with lesser and lesser degrees of chaos, and has done so exponentially over time.




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